A solar panel (battery) is a device with a number of photovoltaic converters. Another name is photovoltaic cells, which are semiconductors by their physical properties. The rays of the celestial luminary fall on the material that absorbs them, and they convert the energy of sunlight into a constant electric current. Further electrons are activated, which come into motion, and the resulting charge with a certain degree of voltage is taken out for accumulation in the battery.
As an additional and alternative source of energy, solar panels are quite actively used not only in industrial but also in domestic conditions. However, before installing such a source of electricity, it is important for the buyer to know how to choose the best characteristics and power of solar panels for the house since the price of ready-made sets varies in a fairly large range. If you want to make the right choice, solar companies near me can help you select solar panels for your eco-friendly house.
Where Solar Panels Are Most Often Used
The sphere of application of solar panels is huge. Even now they are successfully used for the power supply of private and apartment houses, and farms, including for lighting and heating of greenhouses, buildings, lighting of adjacent territories, and power supply of appliances.
Most often, autonomous power supply is considered in the following cases:
- If the area is not electrified, solar panels for a private house will cost much less than using liquid fuel generators.
- In rural areas, power outages are not uncommon, and people are literally left without light. By turning on the autonomous power supply, you can live in the usual comfort for a long time, especially since the solar panels always come with a battery.
- In apartment buildings, solar modules are also used as backup, and there are also projects that provide for the use of solar energy for hot water supply.
Service Life of Solar Panels
As a rule, in the documents on the equipment, the shelf life of 20 to 25 or even 30 years is indicated. However, many devices continue to function even after the period specified by the best manufacturers of solar panels. For example, the world’s first solar panel has been in operation for over 60 years, and over the years the production technology has been significantly improved.
If simple recommendations are followed, the service life of solar panels can be extended:
- Prevent physical damage, such as falling trees, tearing by wind, and scratches on sensitive elements. The efficiency of the device depends on the latter.
- Perform regular maintenance: servicing and cleaning.
- If necessary, install wind barrier structures.
Solar panels for private homes (ready-made kits) in the system include the following components: batteries and power electronics. The service life of the first device is from 2 to 15 years, and the second – from 5 to 20 years, depending on the characteristics, intensity of use, and careful care. For the effective functioning of the equipment and a long service life, it is recommended to buy the best solar panels for home and conduct a properly performed installation, which can only be done by experienced professionals.
Best Types of Solar Panels
The equipment is environmentally friendly and provides stable power without power surges. Most importantly, it delivers free energy: no utility bills.
A solar module converts light into electrical energy by generating a direct current. The area of the panels can reach several meters. When the capacity of the system needs to be increased, the number of modules is increased. Their efficiency depends on the intensity of sunlight and the angle of incidence of rays: on location, season, climatic conditions, and time of day. To properly take into account all these nuances, installation should be performed by professionals. Besides, it is better to learn all the characteristics while looking for the best solar panels to buy.
Types of Modules:
- Monocrystalline: They consist of silicone cells that convert solar energy. They are characterized by compact dimensions. In terms of performance, this is until recently the most efficient (efficiency up to 22%) solar panel for the house.
- Polycrystalline: They use polycrystalline silicon. They are not as effective (efficiency up to 18%) as monocrystalline photocells. But their cost is significantly lower, so they are available to a wide population.
- Amorphous: They have thin-film photovoltaic cells based on silicon. They are inferior to mono and polycrystals in energy production, but they are cheaper. Their advantage is the ability to function in diffuse and even low light.
- Heterostructured: Modern and the most efficient solar modules to date, with an efficiency of 22-25% (over the entire lifetime!). Work effectively both in cloudy weather and at high temperatures).
How a Solar Power Plant Works at Home
A solar power plant is the best home solar system consisting of panels, an inverter, a battery, and a controller. The solar panel transforms radiant energy into electricity (as mentioned above). The direct current goes to the controller, which distributes the current to consumers (such as a computer or lights). The inverter converts the direct current to alternating current and powers most electrical household appliances. Energy is stored in a battery that can be consumed during the hours of darkness.
How Solar Energy Is Used to Generate Heat
Heliosystems are used to heat water and heat homes. They can provide heat (at the owner’s request) even when the heating season is over and provide the house with hot water for free. The simplest device is metal panels that are installed on the roof of the house. They store energy and warm the water that circulates through the pipes hidden underneath them. The functioning of all solar systems is based on this principle, even though they may differ structurally.
Solar collectors consist of:
- Accumulator tank
- Pumping station
According to the type of construction, flat and vacuum collectors are distinguished. In the former, the bottom is covered with thermal insulation material, and the liquid circulates through glass pipes. Vacuum collectors are very efficient because heat losses in them are minimized. This type of collector provides not only heating with solar panels of a private house – it is convenient to use it for hot water supply systems and heating of swimming pools.
To Sum Up, initially, the advantages of using solar energy include only its environmental friendliness and inexhaustibility, but now the list of advantages has expanded. So, the advantages of solar energy and its use are independence from third-party energy systems, constant supply of electric current, long life, independence from the season of the year
Such a point as cost-effectiveness, is difficult to refer specifically to the pluses or minuses. The fact is that the full-fledged provision of a house with electricity through the installation of solar panels requires a one-time large investment. But in the long term, all costs are paid back in full. It is important to calculate everything correctly in advance, buy solar panels top rated, and find the best option for a particular situation.
The only significant disadvantage of solar energy systems is that they do not work at night. This requires the installation of energy storage devices. We hope that our tips and review of the best types of solar panels will help you start using environmentally friendly solar energy.